Radiation is a natural phenomenon where energy radiates from the source of radiation in the form of electromagnetic waves or in the form of particles. Based on its electromagnetic spectrum, radiation is divided into two types: ionizing and non-ionizing. Ionizing radiation comprises radiation from radioactive materials (alpha, beta, gamma) and X-ray, neutron, cosmic and to some extent also ultraviolet radiation.
You can see the cloud chamber, an instrument which, similar to the Geiger-Mueller tube and dosimeters, allows us to detect ionizing radiation, which otherwise – much like radio waves – cannot be detected using our senses. You can also enjoy a hands-on demonstration of a radioactivity counter, which counts radioactive particles in various everyday items you hold in front of it. You can also select from various radiation shields which allow you to reduce the number of radioactive particles or completely stop the particles from reaching you.
Radioactivity, or radioactive radiation, is an all-natural process by which unstable atomic nuclei decay, which has been present on our planet since its formation. Natural radioactive radiation, that is, the one we receive from the environment, consists of radiation emitted from naturally occurring radon (52%), soil (20%), food and drinks (13%), space (13%), and self-induced radiation exposure (2%). The amount of radiation exposure also depends on a number of additional factors such as smoking, x-ray examinations, air travel, and others. Exposure to radiation is expressed as a radiation dose. The unit of measure for the radiation dose is the sievert (Sv).